Content №3 от 2021

New Otkhodnichestvo and Shift Labor Organization in the Processes of Depopulati on and Settlement of Territories

Modern Russia is characterized by a frequent discrepancy between the places of employment and the residence of the able-bodied population. Combi­ned with the new opportunities for its spatial mobility, this has led to the deve­lopment of intra-Russian and intraregional labor migrations. Among them, a significant place is occupied by pendulum migration (daily departure to the place of work in another locality) and shift labor organization (departure to a new place of work for a long time due to the irrationality of daily return to the place of permanent residence). The phenomenon of shift work histori­cally grew out of the pre-revolutionary otkhodnichestvo, which does not fully coincide with that of seasonal work. Our contemporaries are increasingly using the term “otkhodnichestvo" finding direct parallels with shift work. Such work is becoming one of the most dominant areas of labor migration and an active factor of spatially mediated depopulation, analyzed in the article published in the previous issue of this journal.
Unfortunately, statistics do not allow us to obtain objective information about the shift labor phenomenon, and therefore its estimates by different researchers differ significantly. Legally, shift work in Russia is regulated only from the point of view of this employment relationship between the employer and the employee. However, the article shows that this work situation deter­mines not only the special organization of labor but also the special order of organizing the lives of millions of Russian citizens and the spatial organization of economic and social activities in the regions and municipalities of Russia. The concentration of shift work is noted in Moscow and several other large cities, and in poorly populated areas of Russia, it is localized in stationary shift settlements. They are proposed to be considered as a kind of components of the settlement system with the legal establishment of relations with local self-government bodies.

Leksin V. N.

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